Minimum Competency Testing

Manifestation Determination: How the Law Is Implemented

Manifestation Determination: What the Law Requires

Manifestation Determination

Locker Searches

Locker searches are common occurrences in American public schools. The use of locker searches has proliferated in recent years due to continuing threats of drugs and violence.

Limited English Proficiency

All demographers have noted that the United States is clearly experiencing a high growth in students who are English language learners (ELLs). 

Least Restrictive Environment

One of the key mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is that all students with disabilities are to be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE).

Right to Attend Kindergarten

Ever since the first kindergartens opened in the United States in the mid-1800s, discussions about the right to kindergarten, principles for kindergarten entry and eligibility, and what should be taught in kindergarten have taken place in most jurisdictions.

Juvenile Courts

Juvenile courts are courts of limited jurisdiction created by states to work with children and their families in cases of the delinquent behavior of juveniles. 


Inclusion refers to the practice whereby students with disabilities are enrolled in general education classes and receive any needed special education services within that setting.

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