National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: Historical Background

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: Education Litigation

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: Other Efforts

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded in 1909, is the oldest and the largest civil rights organization in the United States. The NAACP seeks to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of minority group citizens in the United States. The NAACP uses nonviolence and relies on the press, the petition, the ballot, and the courts to achieve its objectives. This entry looks at the history of the organization and its litigation efforts.

Frank Brown

See also Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka; Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka and Equal Educational Opportunities; McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education; Sweatt v. Painter

Further Readings

  • Davis, M. D., & Clark, H. R. (1994). Thurgood Marshall: Warrior at the bar, rebel on the bench. New York: Citadel Press. 
  • Flemming, A. S. (1974). Milliken v. Bradley: The implications for metropolitan desegregation: Conference before the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. 
  • Flemming, A. S. (1976). Fulfilling the letter and spirit of the law: Desegregation of the nation’s public schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. 
  • Gray, F. D. (2002). Bus ride to justice. Montgomery, AL: NewSouth Books. 

Legal Citations