National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded in 1909, is the oldest and the largest civil rights organization in the United States. The NAACP seeks to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of minority group citizens in the United States. The NAACP uses nonviolence and relies on the press, the petition, the ballot, and the courts to achieve its objectives. This entry looks at the history of the organization and its litigation efforts.
- Davis, M. D., & Clark, H. R. (1994). Thurgood Marshall: Warrior at the bar, rebel on the bench. New York: Citadel Press.
- Flemming, A. S. (1974). Milliken v. Bradley: The implications for metropolitan desegregation: Conference before the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
- Flemming, A. S. (1976). Fulfilling the letter and spirit of the law: Desegregation of the nation’s public schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
- Gray, F. D. (2002). Bus ride to justice. Montgomery, AL: NewSouth Books.
- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka I, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka II, 349 U.S. 294 (1955).
- McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education, 339 U.S. 637 (1950).
- Sweatt v. Painter, 339 U.S. 629 (1950).