Academic freedom

The concept of academic freedom, based on First Amendment freedom of speech, applies generally to all levels of education.

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Ambach v. Norwick

In Ambach v. Norwick (1979), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a New York statute that forbade the granting of permanent teaching certification...

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Collective Bargaining

The term collective bargaining refers to contractual negotiations between employers and groups of employees to determine specific conditions of employment. 

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Drug Testing of Teachers

Drug testing of teachers involves the law regarding search and seizure, and it must consider both the general nature of a workplace with the expectation that privacy exists there and the specific nature of a school setting with the special considerations necessary there.

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Due Process Rights: Teacher Dismissal

Basic procedural due process in disputes over the dismissal of teachers usually includes notice of intended actions, the right to some explanation for proposed adverse employment actions, and the dismissed individuals’ rights to respond to the planned action.

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Family and Medical Leave Act

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which became law in 1993, applies to public and private employers.

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Highly Qualified Teachers

The term highly qualified teacher comes from the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, now known as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) (2002).

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