Bolling v. Sharpe

In Bolling v. Sharpe (1954), African American junior high school students challenged the denial of their requests for admission to all-White schools in Washington, D.C.

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Bradley v. School Board of City of Richmond

Bradley v. School Board of City of Richmond involved two different decisions by the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) is the U.S. Supreme Court’s most significant ruling on equal educational opportunities and race in American history.

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Columbus Board of Education v. Penick

During the 1970s, officials in several boards of education in Ohio responded to allegations that they consciously engaged in racial discrimination by creating and perpetuating dual school systems.

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Crawford v. Board of Education of the City of Los Angeles

Crawford v. Board of Education of the City of Los Angeles (1982) involved two decades of legal wrangling over the desegregation of Los Angeles schools, including several rounds through California’s state courts and a trip to the U.S. Supreme Court.

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Cooper v. Aaron

In Cooper v. Aaron (1958), the U.S. Supreme Court responded to an early skirmish in the battle over school segregation, in which nine students who desegregated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, during the 1957–1958 school year had to confront the fierce resistance of Governor Faubus and the state legislature.

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Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County

At issue in Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County (1899) was whether denying a high school education to African American students was a “clear and unmistakable disregard of rights” (p. 545) in violation of their constitutional protections under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Davis v. School Commissioners of Mobile County

Davis v. School Commissioners of Mobile County (1971) involved the adequacy of a desegregation plan for Mobile County, Alabama.

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Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman, I and II

Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman, I and II (1977, 1979) are judicially related school desegregation cases that originated in the city of Dayton, Ohio. In Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman I (1977), minority student plaintiffs sued the Dayton school board asserting that, acting in concert with the State Board of Education of Ohio...

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DeFunis v. Odegaard

In DeFunis v. Odegaard (1974), a law school applicant challenged the University of Washington Law School’s race-conscious admission policy, charging that his rejection constituted discrimination.

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Dowell v. Board of Education of Oklahoma City Public Schools

Dowell v. Board of Education of Oklahoma City Public Schools is the name given to a series of cases that moved back and forth through the federal courts for more than three decades as Oklahoma schools worked to achieve desegregation to the court’s satisfaction.

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Freeman v. Pitts

In Freeman v. Pitts (1992), the U.S. Supreme Court was asked to determine whether a trial federal court had discretion to relinquish jurisdiction over portions of a school board’s constitutionally required desegregation plan before it declared that all aspects of a school district’s operations were declared “unitary” or free from discrimination.

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Givhan v. Western Line Consolidated School District

Givhan v. Western Line Consolidated School District (1979) addressed a teacher’s right to free speech under the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

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Gong Lum v. Rice

Gong Lum v. Rice (1927) stands out as the case within which the U.S. Supreme Court explicitly extended the pernicious doctrine of “separate but equal” that it introduced at the national level to public education in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).

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Goss v. Board of Education

At issue in Goss v. Board of Education (1963) was the constitutionality of the transfer provisions of a desegregation plan in Tennessee.

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Goss v. Lopez

Are students entitled to due process if they are suspended from public schools for 1 to 10 days? If so, what process is due?

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Gratz v. Bollinger

In Gratz v. Bollinger (2003), White applicants who were not admitted as undergraduates to the University of Michigan filed suit claiming racial discrimination.

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Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

At issue in Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (1968) was whether a school board’s adoption of a “freedom of choice” plan for the purpose of desegregating a school system constituted adequate compliance with its responsibility to achieve a unitary racially nondiscriminatory school system. . .

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Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954, triggered years of continued litigation related to the issue of desegregation of public schools throughout the United States.

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Griggs v. Duke Power Company

In Griggs v. Duke Power Company (1971), the U.S. Supreme Court first articulated how to review cases of disparate-impact discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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Grutter v. Bollinger

In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), the U.S. Supreme Court addressed the question of whether race could be considered in university admissions policies.

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Hazelwood School District v. United States

Hazelwood School District v. United States (1977) involved a dispute over inequitable hiring practices involving African American teachers.

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Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado

The U.S. Supreme Court’s 1973 decision in Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado, has had a profound and lasting effect on school desegregation litigation.

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Abood v. Detroit Board of Education

The legal issue addressed in the 1977 Supreme Court case Abood v. Detroit Board of Education was whether agency shop clauses violate the constitutional rights of government employees...

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Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1 v. Hudson

Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1 v. Hudson (1986) was significant for school labor relations...

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Collective Bargaining

The term collective bargaining refers to contractual negotiations between employers and groups of employees to determine specific conditions of employment. 

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Davenport v. Washington Education Association

In a unanimous 9-to-0 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Davenport v. Washington Education Association (2007), ruled that states do not violate the First Amendment in requiring public sector labor unions to obtain the formal permission of nonunion member employees before spending their fair-share or agency shop fees on politically related expenses, including campaigns and elections. 

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Abington Township School District v. Schempp and Murray v. Curlett

At issue in the consolidated cases of Abington Township School District v. Schempp and Murray v. Curlett (1963)...

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Board of Education of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens

In Board of Education of Westside Community Schools v. Mergens (1990), the U.S. Supreme Court held that, on its face, the Equal Access Act does not violate the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.

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Edwards v. Aguillard

At issue in Edwards v. Aguillard (1987) was whether a Louisiana statute titled “Balanced Treatment Creation-Science and Evolution-Science in Public School Institutions Act” was unconstitutional under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits states from making laws respecting an establishment of religion.

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Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow

In Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow (2004), the Supreme Court faced two issues.

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Engel v. Vitale

The U.S. Supreme Court’s landmark judgment in Engel v. Vitale (1962), its first ever case on prayer in public schools, is popularly known as the “Regents Prayer” decision.

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Epperson v. State of Arkansas

In Epperson v. State of Arkansas (1968), the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a state law that barred the teaching of Darwin’s theory of evolution because although the statute obviously did not coerce anyone to support religion or participate in any religious practice

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Good News Club v. Milford Central School

In Good News Club v. Milford Central School (2001), the Supreme Court ruled that a religious group could not be denied the use of a public school’s facilities after school hours if the facilities were available to other groups promoting similar issues, namely, the moral and character development of children.

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Illinois ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education

At issue in Illinois ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education (1948) was the constitutionality of released time for religious instruction in public schools. 

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Lamb’s Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District

In disputes over the question of separation of church and state, the use of school facilities by religious groups has been an issue numerous times.

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Lee v. Weisman

Prayer as a long-standing tradition in many public school graduation ceremonies came under the scrutiny of the Supreme Court in Lee v. Weisman (1992).

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Agostini v. Felton

The Supreme Court’s 1997 judgment in Agostini v. Felton essentially reversed the decision it had made 12 years earlier in Aguilar v. Felton (1985).

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Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet

Board of Education of Kiryas Joel Village School District v. Grumet presents a somewhat unusual controversy as far as church-state suits are concerned.

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Board of Education v. Allen

At issue in Board of Education of Central School District No. 1 v. Allen) (1968), often simply called Board of Education v. Allen, was the constitutionality of the loan of textbooks to students in religiously affiliated nonpublic schools.

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Cochran v. Louisiana State Board of Education

Cochran v. Louisiana State Board of Education (1930) is one of two early cases wherein the Supreme Court of the United States dealt with the rights of students in religiously affiliated nonpublic schools.

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Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Levitt

Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Levitt (1973, 1977, 1980) is a dispute that made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court on three separate occasions during a seven-year period.

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Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Nyquist

In Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Nyquist (1973), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state legislation that provided monies for the maintenance and repair of religious facilities as well as...

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Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Regan

At issue in Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty (PEARL) v. Regan (1980) was the constitutionality of a statute from New York that authorized the use of public funds to reimburse churchrelated and secular nonpublic schools for performing various state-mandated testing and reporting services.

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Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township

In Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township (1947), the Supreme Court upheld a statute from New Jersey and a local school board’s authorization to reimburse parents for the expense of bus transportation to school on public transportation for students who attended religiously affiliated, nonpublic schools. 

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Grand Rapids School District v. Ball

At issue in Grand Rapids School District v. Ball (1985) was the constitutionality of two educational programs of the Grand Rapids, Michigan, School District that served the students of nonpublic schools, most of them religiously affiliated.

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Lemon v. Kurtzman

Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971), or “Lemon I,” is best known for its three-part test, which the Supreme Court created to be used in evaluating whether government action violates the Establishment Clause

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Locke v. Davey

In Locke v. Davey (2004), the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of “no-funding provisions” in Washington State’s constitution, as applied to a student who attended a religiously affiliated institution of higher learning.

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Alexander v. Choate

Alexander v. Choate (1985), even though it was not litigated in an educational context...

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Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy

Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy (2006) is the U.S. Supreme Court’s first opinion construing a controversial provision of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

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Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley

In 1982, the Supreme Court decided Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley.

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Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F.

In Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F. (1999), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires school boards to provide full-time nursing services to students with disabilities who need them during the school day.

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Florence County School District Four v. Carter

Florence County School District Four v. Carter (1993) addressed the issue of the reimbursement of private tuition costs to parents who disagree with their child’s individualized education program (IEP) and unilaterally place the child in a private school.

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Honig v. Doe

At issue in Honig v. Doe (1988), the U.S. Supreme Court’s first and only case on the topic, were the acceptable limits of disciplining students with disabilities under the (then) Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA), now the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA).

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Irving Independent School District v. Tatro

In Irving Independent School District v. Tatro (1984), the U.S. Supreme Court addressed the question of whether the related services provision of the Education of the Handicapped Act of 1975. . .

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Ansonia Board of Education v. Philbrook

As part of a broad federal attack on discrimination in the workplace, Congress outlawed religious discrimination in employment in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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Beilan v. Board of Public Education

In Beilan v. Board of Public Education (1958), the U.S. Supreme Court was faced with the issue of whether a teacher’s dismissal for incompetence...

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Bishop v. Wood

Bishop v. Wood (1976) dealt with an employment dispute between a former police officer and the city for which he worked.

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Board of Regents v. Roth

Board of Regents v. Roth (1972) is a seminal case over the due process rights of educators in public schools who are facing termination or nonrenewal of their employment contracts.

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Burlington Industries v. Ellerth

Burlington Industries v. Ellerth (1998) addressed sexual harassment in the workplace, with the Supreme Court establishing guidelines for employers who hope to make an affirmative defense against such complaints.

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Cannon v. University of Chicago

At issue in Cannon v. University of Chicago was whether a private right of action existed under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 in a suit where a woman claimed that she was denied admission to a medical school on the basis of her sex.

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Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1 v. Hudson

Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1 v. Hudson (1986) was significant for school labor relations...

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Cleveland Board of Education v. Loudermill

In Cleveland Board of Education v. Loudermill (1985), the Supreme Court specified the right of educational employees to some kind of pretermination notice as part of due process that must be given as part of educational performance assessment.

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Connick v. Myers

At issue in Connick v. Myers (1983) was whether a former assistant district attorney (ADA) who was dismissed for conducting a survey about morale in the district attorney’s office was speaking as a private citizen on a matter of public concern.

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Davenport v. Washington Education Association

In a unanimous 9-to-0 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Davenport v. Washington Education Association (2007), ruled that states do not violate the First Amendment in requiring public sector labor unions to obtain the formal permission of nonunion member employees before spending their fair-share or agency shop fees on politically related expenses, including campaigns and elections. 

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Faragher v. City of Boca Raton

At issue in Faragher v. City of Boca Raton (1998) was whether a public employer could be liable for sexual harassment committed by supervisory employees. 

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Harrah Independent School District v. Martin

Many professions require their members to obtain continuing education credits as a means of staying current and up-to-date with new techniques and research within their fields.

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Harris v. Forklift Systems

When do abusive comments in the workplace constitute sexual harassment? This was the question that the U.S. Supreme Court confronted in Harris v. Forklift Systems (1993).

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Hortonville Joint School District No. 1 v. Hortonville Education Association

In Hortonville Joint School District No. 1 v. Hortonville Education Association (1976), teachers sued their school board, alleging that it violated their due process rights when it fired them for striking in direct violation of Wisconsin state law.

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Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education

At issue in Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education was whether a private person—in this instance, an athletic coach who was removed from his position when he complained about sexual discrimination against a girls’ team—could file suit under Title IX

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Keyishian v. Board of Regents

The U.S. Supreme Court considered two issues in Keyishian v. Board of Regents.

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Baker v. Owen

Who has more authority in deciding how a child will be disciplined at school, especially when a parent’s belief in how his or her child is to be disciplined is at odds with a school’s disciplinary practices?

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Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser

In Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser (1986), the Supreme Court held that school officials did not violate a high school student’s free speech and due process rights when he was disciplined for making a lewd and vulgar speech at a school assembly.

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Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls

The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls (2002)...

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Carey v. Piphus

May school officials be sued for monetary damages if they violate a student’s right to due process?

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Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education

Acting on the complaint of a young girl whose classmate made inappropriate sexual overtures, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education (1999) that school boards could be held liable for such harassment under certain circumstances.

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Debra P. v. Turlington

At issue in Debra P. v. Turlington (1981) was the validity of student testing. In 1978, the Florida legislature conditioned the receipt of a high school diploma on passing a state competency examination.

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Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools

Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools (1992) is a seminal case with regard to sexual harassment in schools that receive federal financial assistance.

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Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District

Gebser v. Lago Vista Independent School District (1998) established the legal standards under which school boards that receive federal funds can be liable for damages for teacher-to-student sexual harassment under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

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Grove City College v. Bell

In Grove City College v. Bell (1984), the U.S. Supreme Court held that Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 applies to all private colleges whose students receive federal assistance, even if institutions do not directly receive such aid from the federal government.

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Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1988) is the third of a trilogy of cases involving the free speech rights of students, along with Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969) and Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser (1986).

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Hobson v. Hansen

A trial court’s ruling in Hobson v. Hansen (1967) raised legal questions about ability grouping but failed to stop the practice in its tracks.

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Ingraham v. Wright

The 1977 case of Ingraham v. Wright is mostly cited for its ruling on the applicability of the Eighth Amendment’s Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause to corporal punishment in public schools.

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In re Gault

At issue in In re Gault (1967) was the constitutionality of juvenile court proceedings.

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Board of Education, Island Trees Union Free School District No. 26 v. Pico

In Board of Education, Island Trees Union Free School District No. 26 v. Pico (1982)...

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Jacobson v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts

Jacobson v. Commonwealth of Massachusetts (1905) is a classic case dealing with the public health and welfare, as one citizen unsuccessfully protested government-required vaccinations.

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Kadrmas v. Dickinson Public Schools

At issue in Kadrmas v. Dickinson Public Schools (1988), the U.S. Supreme Court’s only case on the topic, was whether educational officials violated a student’s right to a public school education because her mother could not afford the transportation fee

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Lau v. Nichols

At issue before the U.S. Supreme Court in Lau v. Nichols was whether a school system is required to provide a program to address the language problems of non-English-speaking students.

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Cantwell v. Connecticut

Cantwell v. Connecticut (1940) was a U.S. Supreme Court case involving door-to-door religious solicitations.

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City of Boerne v. Flores

At issue in City of Boerne v. Flores (1997) was the constitutionality of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), which was passed by Congress in 1993. 

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Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Amos

In Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Amos (1987), former employees of unincorporated divisions of the Church of the Latter-Day Saints (LDS) who refused or were ineligible to become members of the church challenged their being dismissed from their jobs.

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Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith

In Employment Division Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith (1990), the Supreme Court ruled that their religious beliefs do not necessarily exempt people from compliance with neutral, generally applicable laws.

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