Eighth Amendment

The Eighth Amendment, enacted in 1791 as part of the Bill of Rights, provides that “excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted” (U.S. Const., Amend. VIII).

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Ability grouping

Ability grouping refers to the organizing of elementary and secondary students into classrooms or courses for instruction according to actual or purported ability.

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Abington Township School District v. Schempp and Murray v. Curlett

At issue in the consolidated cases of Abington Township School District v. Schempp and Murray v. Curlett (1963)...

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Abood v. Detroit Board of Education

The legal issue addressed in the 1977 Supreme Court case Abood v. Detroit Board of Education was whether agency shop clauses violate the constitutional rights of government employees...

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Academic freedom

The concept of academic freedom, based on First Amendment freedom of speech, applies generally to all levels of education.

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Academic sanctions

Academic sanctions are penalties that school officials use to penalize students for poor academic performances.

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Acceptable Use Policies

Acceptable use policies (AUPs) are sets of rules, regulations, rights, and responsibilities adopted by school officials...

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Access to programs and facilities

When addressing the topic of access to educational programs and facilities, two concepts are extremely important: equal access and viewpoint neutrality.

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Adequate yearly progress

Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) is a measure established under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB, 2002) by which schools...

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Affirmative action

Affirmative action began as a broad set of activities brought forth by the civil rights movement beginning in the 1930s.

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Age discrimination

American society is “graying” as health care improves and the baby boom generation approaches retirement age.

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