Academic sanctions

Academic sanctions are penalties that school officials use to penalize students for poor academic performances.

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Bullying

Bullying can be defined as long-standing physical or psychological violence carried out both repeatedly and over time...

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Child Abuse

Child abuse is a major problem in the United States. Researchers began calling attention to the issue in the 1970s, and today all 50 states have laws in place that require educators to report suspected child abuse or neglect to law enforcement officials or child protection agencies.

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Child Benefit Test

The child benefit test is a judicially constructed legal fiction that justifies government extension of benefits to religious schools via the rationale of supporting parent choice.

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Child Protection

In 2005, more than 3.3 million reports of suspected child abuse or neglect were reported to state child protection agencies in the United States.

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Children’s Internet Protection Act

The development of the Internet accelerated the impact of technology on the services and information that schools and libraries provide to students and patrons. 

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Corporal Punishment

In the mid-1970s, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of educators to use corporal punishment to foster discipline in the public schools.

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Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying generally encompasses any kind of harassing or bullying conduct that occurs through electronic communication channels or devices, including e-mail, Web pages, blogs, online video sharing sites, social networking services, cell phones, and camcorders.

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Denominational Schools in Canada

Because the Dominion of Canada initially included separate areas with English-speaking and Frenchspeaking majorities, constitutional legal protections were provided for denominational schools as a safeguard for minority-religion schools.

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Dress Codes

School dress codes have their origins in English private schools but only recently became common in American public schools.

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Extracurricular Activities, Law and Policy

Extracurricular activities fall outside of a school’s academic curriculum. Participation by students is voluntary. Extracurricular activities are not a student right, but a privilege.

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Free Speech and Expression Rights of Students

There has always been a fundamental tension between public school students and educational authorities in determining the parameters of acceptable student behavior.

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Gangs

A gang, essentially, is a group of two or more people whose primary purposes include the commission of illegal and/or violent acts, usually designed to mark territory and preserve a sense of belonging and protection in a geographical area.

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Gifted Education

Few areas of education are as controversial as gifted education. Programs for children who are gifted have been present in varying forms for many years. 

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Grading Practices

The issuance of formal grades or other forms of assessment of student performance is a time-honored practice designed to offer formative and summative feedback to students and their parents.

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Graduation Requirements

Graduation is typically the closing chapter in any student educational enterprise.

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Hazing

Hazing has been an integral part of student life on college and university campuses for more than 100 years in the United States.

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Rights of Homeless Students

Estimates suggest that as many as 760,000 Americans are homeless on any given night and up to 2 million experience homelessness each year, among them many children in need of an education.

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Homeschooling

Homeschooling is the broad term used for describing the education of school-aged persons at home rather than in the public or private education systems. 

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Inclusion

Inclusion refers to the practice whereby students with disabilities are enrolled in general education classes and receive any needed special education services within that setting.

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Juvenile Courts

Juvenile courts are courts of limited jurisdiction created by states to work with children and their families in cases of the delinquent behavior of juveniles. 

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Right to Attend Kindergarten

Ever since the first kindergartens opened in the United States in the mid-1800s, discussions about the right to kindergarten, principles for kindergarten entry and eligibility, and what should be taught in kindergarten have taken place in most jurisdictions.

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Least Restrictive Environment

One of the key mandates of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is that all students with disabilities are to be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE).

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Limited English Proficiency

All demographers have noted that the United States is clearly experiencing a high growth in students who are English language learners (ELLs). 

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Locker Searches

Locker searches are common occurrences in American public schools. The use of locker searches has proliferated in recent years due to continuing threats of drugs and violence.

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