Bolling v. Sharpe

In Bolling v. Sharpe (1954), African American junior high school students challenged the denial of their requests for admission to all-White schools in Washington, D.C.

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Bradley v. School Board of City of Richmond

Bradley v. School Board of City of Richmond involved two different decisions by the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) is the U.S. Supreme Court’s most significant ruling on equal educational opportunities and race in American history.

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Columbus Board of Education v. Penick

During the 1970s, officials in several boards of education in Ohio responded to allegations that they consciously engaged in racial discrimination by creating and perpetuating dual school systems.

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Crawford v. Board of Education of the City of Los Angeles

Crawford v. Board of Education of the City of Los Angeles (1982) involved two decades of legal wrangling over the desegregation of Los Angeles schools, including several rounds through California’s state courts and a trip to the U.S. Supreme Court.

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Cooper v. Aaron

In Cooper v. Aaron (1958), the U.S. Supreme Court responded to an early skirmish in the battle over school segregation, in which nine students who desegregated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, during the 1957–1958 school year had to confront the fierce resistance of Governor Faubus and the state legislature.

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Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County

At issue in Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County (1899) was whether denying a high school education to African American students was a “clear and unmistakable disregard of rights” (p. 545) in violation of their constitutional protections under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Davis v. School Commissioners of Mobile County

Davis v. School Commissioners of Mobile County (1971) involved the adequacy of a desegregation plan for Mobile County, Alabama.

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Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman, I and II

Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman, I and II (1977, 1979) are judicially related school desegregation cases that originated in the city of Dayton, Ohio. In Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman I (1977), minority student plaintiffs sued the Dayton school board asserting that, acting in concert with the State Board of Education of Ohio...

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DeFunis v. Odegaard

In DeFunis v. Odegaard (1974), a law school applicant challenged the University of Washington Law School’s race-conscious admission policy, charging that his rejection constituted discrimination.

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Dowell v. Board of Education of Oklahoma City Public Schools

Dowell v. Board of Education of Oklahoma City Public Schools is the name given to a series of cases that moved back and forth through the federal courts for more than three decades as Oklahoma schools worked to achieve desegregation to the court’s satisfaction.

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Freeman v. Pitts

In Freeman v. Pitts (1992), the U.S. Supreme Court was asked to determine whether a trial federal court had discretion to relinquish jurisdiction over portions of a school board’s constitutionally required desegregation plan before it declared that all aspects of a school district’s operations were declared “unitary” or free from discrimination.

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Givhan v. Western Line Consolidated School District

Givhan v. Western Line Consolidated School District (1979) addressed a teacher’s right to free speech under the First and Fourteenth Amendments.

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Gong Lum v. Rice

Gong Lum v. Rice (1927) stands out as the case within which the U.S. Supreme Court explicitly extended the pernicious doctrine of “separate but equal” that it introduced at the national level to public education in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).

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Goss v. Board of Education

At issue in Goss v. Board of Education (1963) was the constitutionality of the transfer provisions of a desegregation plan in Tennessee.

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Goss v. Lopez

Are students entitled to due process if they are suspended from public schools for 1 to 10 days? If so, what process is due?

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Gratz v. Bollinger

In Gratz v. Bollinger (2003), White applicants who were not admitted as undergraduates to the University of Michigan filed suit claiming racial discrimination.

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Green v. County School Board of New Kent County

At issue in Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (1968) was whether a school board’s adoption of a “freedom of choice” plan for the purpose of desegregating a school system constituted adequate compliance with its responsibility to achieve a unitary racially nondiscriminatory school system. . .

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Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954, triggered years of continued litigation related to the issue of desegregation of public schools throughout the United States.

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Griggs v. Duke Power Company

In Griggs v. Duke Power Company (1971), the U.S. Supreme Court first articulated how to review cases of disparate-impact discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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Grutter v. Bollinger

In Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), the U.S. Supreme Court addressed the question of whether race could be considered in university admissions policies.

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Hazelwood School District v. United States

Hazelwood School District v. United States (1977) involved a dispute over inequitable hiring practices involving African American teachers.

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Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado

The U.S. Supreme Court’s 1973 decision in Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado, has had a profound and lasting effect on school desegregation litigation.

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