Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency charged with enforcement of a variety of laws designed to prevent discrimination in the workplace.

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Equal Pay Act

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 amended the Fair Labor Standards Act, making it illegal to pay different wages to employees of different genders for equal work or jobs requiring equal skill, effort, or responsibility and performed under similar working conditions.

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Equal Protection Analysis

The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution declares that no state may “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” 

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Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township

In Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Township (1947), the Supreme Court upheld a statute from New Jersey and a local school board’s authorization to reimburse parents for the expense of bus transportation to school on public transportation for students who attended religiously affiliated, nonpublic schools. 

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Extended School Year Services

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and its regulations do not unequivocally require school boards to provide students with disabilities with special education and related services during traditional school vacations.

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Extracurricular Activities, Law and Policy

Extracurricular activities fall outside of a school’s academic curriculum. Participation by students is voluntary. Extracurricular activities are not a student right, but a privilege.

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Fair Use

According to Section 107 of the federal Copyright Act, fair use of a copyrighted work, “for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.”

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False Imprisonment

False imprisonment, sometimes called false arrest, is a tort that protects an individual’s freedom from improper restraint and includes more than simple incarceration.

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Family and Medical Leave Act

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which became law in 1993, applies to public and private employers.

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Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act

The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, more commonly referred to as FERPA, is designed to safeguard the confidentiality of student education records.

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Faragher v. City of Boca Raton

At issue in Faragher v. City of Boca Raton (1998) was whether a public employer could be liable for sexual harassment committed by supervisory employees. 

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Federalism and the Tenth Amendment

The term federalism refers to the division of power and responsibility between the states and the national government.

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Federal Role in Education

From the first federal land ordinances of the 1780s through major judicial decisions like Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) and George W. Bush’s 2001 promise to leave no child behind. . .

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First Amendment

The First Amendment was enacted in response to the experiences that the American colonists had with their British government as that government established religions in some colonies and limited freedom of the press generally.

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First Amendment: Speech in Schools

Free speech in the public schools is based on the First Amendment to the Constitution, according to which “Congress shall make no law . . . abridging the freedom of speech or of the press.”

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