Catholic Schools

Long a major force in American education, new Roman Catholic elementary and secondary schools continue to open in such geographically diverse locations as Atlanta, Minneapolis, and Orlando.

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Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F.

In Cedar Rapids Community School District v. Garret F. (1999), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires school boards to provide full-time nursing services to students with disabilities who need them during the school day.

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Charter Schools

Charter schools are publicly funded, tuition-free schools of choice that have greater autonomy than traditional public schools.

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Cheating

Cheating is usually defined as deliberately engaging in dishonest or fraudulent behavior for one’s own gain.

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Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1 v. Hudson

Chicago Teachers Union, Local No. 1 v. Hudson (1986) was significant for school labor relations...

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Child Abuse

Child abuse is a major problem in the United States. Researchers began calling attention to the issue in the 1970s, and today all 50 states have laws in place that require educators to report suspected child abuse or neglect to law enforcement officials or child protection agencies.

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Child Benefit Test

The child benefit test is a judicially constructed legal fiction that justifies government extension of benefits to religious schools via the rationale of supporting parent choice.

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Child Protection

In 2005, more than 3.3 million reports of suspected child abuse or neglect were reported to state child protection agencies in the United States.

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Children’s Internet Protection Act

The development of the Internet accelerated the impact of technology on the services and information that schools and libraries provide to students and patrons. 

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City of Boerne v. Flores

At issue in City of Boerne v. Flores (1997) was the constitutionality of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), which was passed by Congress in 1993. 

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Civil Law

In the U.S. legal system, civil law is the branch of law concerning disputes between individuals and/or organizations, where a judgment can be the requirement of action, the cessation of action, and/or monetary payments from one party to another.

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Civil Rights Act of 1871 (Section 1983)

The Civil Rights Act of 1871 (Section 1983) was intended to provide a remedy in federal courts for former slaves whose rights were violated by the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) or by state officials during the Reconstruction period in American history.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, passed after decades of legal and grassroots advocacy, is viewed as a landmark in the struggle for civil rights in the United States. 

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Civil Rights Movement

The civil rights movement, a decades-long effort to win equitable treatment for African Americans and other groups underrepresented in American society, is described chronologically in this entry.

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Cleveland Board of Education v. Loudermill

In Cleveland Board of Education v. Loudermill (1985), the Supreme Court specified the right of educational employees to some kind of pretermination notice as part of due process that must be given as part of educational performance assessment.

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