Copyright

Copyrights are intangible rights granted by the federal Copyright Act to authors or creators of original artistic or literary works that can be fixed in a tangible means of expression such as hard copies, electronic files, videos, or audio recordings.

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Corporal Punishment

In the mid-1970s, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld the right of educators to use corporal punishment to foster discipline in the public schools.

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Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Amos

In Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Amos (1987), former employees of unincorporated divisions of the Church of the Latter-Day Saints (LDS) who refused or were ineligible to become members of the church challenged their being dismissed from their jobs.

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Teaching of Creationism Evolution and Intelligent Design

Four distinct movements in American educational history have approached the interpretation of what may be taught to children regarding the origins of life.

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Critical Theory

Critical theory views the law as a tool of social, political, and economic reform oriented toward addressing social injustices.

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Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County

At issue in Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County (1899) was whether denying a high school education to African American students was a “clear and unmistakable disregard of rights” (p. 545) in violation of their constitutional protections under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying generally encompasses any kind of harassing or bullying conduct that occurs through electronic communication channels or devices, including e-mail, Web pages, blogs, online video sharing sites, social networking services, cell phones, and camcorders.

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Clarence S. Darrow (1857–1938)

Clarence S. Darrow rode to fame in education law with his unusual defense of high school teacher John T. Scopes in the infamous “Monkey Trial” in Dayton, Tennessee, in 1925.

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Davenport v. Washington Education Association

In a unanimous 9-to-0 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Davenport v. Washington Education Association (2007), ruled that states do not violate the First Amendment in requiring public sector labor unions to obtain the formal permission of nonunion member employees before spending their fair-share or agency shop fees on politically related expenses, including campaigns and elections. 

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Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education

Acting on the complaint of a young girl whose classmate made inappropriate sexual overtures, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Davis v. Monroe County Board of Education (1999) that school boards could be held liable for such harassment under certain circumstances.

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Davis v. School Commissioners of Mobile County

Davis v. School Commissioners of Mobile County (1971) involved the adequacy of a desegregation plan for Mobile County, Alabama.

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Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman, I and II

Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman, I and II (1977, 1979) are judicially related school desegregation cases that originated in the city of Dayton, Ohio. In Dayton Board of Education v. Brinkman I (1977), minority student plaintiffs sued the Dayton school board asserting that, acting in concert with the State Board of Education of Ohio...

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Debra P. v. Turlington

At issue in Debra P. v. Turlington (1981) was the validity of student testing. In 1978, the Florida legislature conditioned the receipt of a high school diploma on passing a state competency examination.

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Defamation

Defamation is an injurious statement about a person’s reputation; it usually involves a defamer, who imputes questionable character or inappropriate conduct about another, the defamed party. 

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DeFunis v. Odegaard

In DeFunis v. Odegaard (1974), a law school applicant challenged the University of Washington Law School’s race-conscious admission policy, charging that his rejection constituted discrimination.

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