Age discrimination in employment act

American society has grown older as the baby boom generation approaches retirement and health care improves.

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Agency shop

An agency shop is defined as a place of employment where workers are required to pay union dues regardless of whether they are union members.

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Agostini v. Felton

The Supreme Court’s 1997 judgment in Agostini v. Felton essentially reversed the decision it had made 12 years earlier in Aguilar v. Felton (1985).

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Alexander v. Choate

Alexander v. Choate (1985), even though it was not litigated in an educational context...

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Samuel A. Alito, Jr.

Samuel A. Alito, Jr., is the 110th person appointed as justice on the U.S. Supreme Court, an honor that is the capstone of a distinguished career in public service.

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Ambach v. Norwick

In Ambach v. Norwick (1979), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a New York statute that forbade the granting of permanent teaching certification...

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Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act...

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Ansonia Board of Education v. Philbrook

As part of a broad federal attack on discrimination in the workplace, Congress outlawed religious discrimination in employment in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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Antiharassment Policies

Historically, many school administrators and teachers perceived peer harassment as normal adolescent behavior that did not pose any substantial threat to student safety.

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Arbitration

Arbitration refers to the process whereby parties involved in collective bargaining disputes agree to be legally bound by the decision of neutral...

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Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy

Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy (2006) is the U.S. Supreme Court’s first opinion construing a controversial provision of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

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Civil Assault and Battery

Assault and battery are closely related intentional torts that are distinguished from one another by the presence or absence of physical contact.

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Assistive Technology

Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (2005), assistive technology (AT) is any device or item, purchased off the shelf or customized...

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Attorney Fees

Attorney fees are an incidental, generally necessary, but usually expensive cost of litigation, unless attorneys agree to provide representation voluntarily.

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Authority Theory

Authority is a ubiquitous term, used commonly to refer to those who can command obedience and have decision-making power, either as individuals or as officials acting on behalf of agencies.

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