Closed Shop

A closed shop refers to a business or organization in which all employees are required to become union members as a precondition of employment.

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Cochran v. Louisiana State Board of Education

Cochran v. Louisiana State Board of Education (1930) is one of two early cases wherein the Supreme Court of the United States dealt with the rights of students in religiously affiliated nonpublic schools.

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Collective Bargaining

The term collective bargaining refers to contractual negotiations between employers and groups of employees to determine specific conditions of employment. 

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Columbus Board of Education v. Penick

During the 1970s, officials in several boards of education in Ohio responded to allegations that they consciously engaged in racial discrimination by creating and perpetuating dual school systems.

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Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Levitt

Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Levitt (1973, 1977, 1980) is a dispute that made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court on three separate occasions during a seven-year period.

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Crawford v. Board of Education of the City of Los Angeles

Crawford v. Board of Education of the City of Los Angeles (1982) involved two decades of legal wrangling over the desegregation of Los Angeles schools, including several rounds through California’s state courts and a trip to the U.S. Supreme Court.

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Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Nyquist

In Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Nyquist (1973), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that state legislation that provided monies for the maintenance and repair of religious facilities as well as...

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Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty v. Regan

At issue in Committee for Public Education and Religious Liberty (PEARL) v. Regan (1980) was the constitutionality of a statute from New York that authorized the use of public funds to reimburse churchrelated and secular nonpublic schools for performing various state-mandated testing and reporting services.

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Common Law

The evolution of the common law began when Henry II established a system of English royal courts in 1166. These courts employed juries and were presided over by circuit-riding judges.

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Compensatory Services

Compensatory services are educational services that are awarded to students with disabilities to make up for services that they lost because of a school board’s failure to provide an appropriate educational placement under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

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Compulsory Attendance

Compulsory attendance laws refer to legislative mandates that school-aged children attend public, nonpublic, or homeschools until reaching specified ages.

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Connick v. Myers

At issue in Connick v. Myers (1983) was whether a former assistant district attorney (ADA) who was dismissed for conducting a survey about morale in the district attorney’s office was speaking as a private citizen on a matter of public concern.

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Consent Decree

Consent decrees in educational disputes are negotiated equitable agreements between plaintiffs and defendants in elementary and secondary school settings and in higher education.

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Contracts

Contracts are legally enforceable agreements between two or more parties to perform obligations resulting from bargained-for exchanges.

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Cooper v. Aaron

In Cooper v. Aaron (1958), the U.S. Supreme Court responded to an early skirmish in the battle over school segregation, in which nine students who desegregated Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, during the 1957–1958 school year had to confront the fierce resistance of Governor Faubus and the state legislature.

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